Location of surface stations in the global weather observation network [OC] [2000×1101]
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On this network are based the instrumental temperature records.
The instrumental temperature record shows fluctuations of the temperature of earth’s climate system. Initially the instrumental temperature record only documented land and sea surface temperature, but in recent decades instruments have also begun recording sub-surface ocean temperature. This data is collected from several thousand meteorological stations, Antarctic research stations, satellite observations of sea-surface temperature, and subsurface ocean sensors. The longest-running temperature record is the Central England temperature data series, that starts in 1659. The longest-running quasi-global record starts in 1850.
Happy Perihelion! (January 4)
Today the Earth is at perihelion, the point in its oval orbit when it’s closest to the Sun. At that time, Earth passes 1.7% closer than average.
Therefore the Sun today looks a tiny bit bigger than usual, as you can see in this telescopic view comparing it at 2010/2011’s perihelion and aphelion. By eye, though, you’d never notice the difference. (Image source)
Did you know that the average temperature of Earth has a seasonal pattern? And did you know that at the perihellon (the shortest distance to the sun) the temperature is a lot lower than at the aphelion (the largest distance to the sun). I did not knew this and it is hard to belief but it is true!