This is an ice cave, known as “crystal Cave” on the frozen lagoon of the Svínafellsjökull glacier in Skaftafell, Iceland. This snow, which is up to 1000 years old, has metamorphosed into highly pressurized glacier ice that contains almost no air bubbles. The lack of air means that it absorbs almost all visible light, apart from the blue fraction which is then visible to the naked eye. This cave in the glacier ice is the result of glacial mill, or Moulin, where rain and melt water on the glacier surface are channeled into streams that enter the glacier at crevices. The water melts a hole into the glacier while the ponded water drains towards lower elevations by forming long ice caves with an outlet at the terminus of the glacier. This cave can only safely be accessed in winter, when the lagoon is thoroughly frozen over.
For more photos of ice caves see:http://abcnews.go.com/Technology/slideshow/stunning-images-europes-ice-caves-15909667
Photo courtesy of Christian Klepp
The Perito Moreno Glacier is a glacier located in the Los Glaciares National Park in southwest Santa Cruz province, Argentina. It is one of the most important tourist attractions in the Argentine Patagonia. The 250 km2 (97 sq mi) ice formation, and 30 km (19 mi) in length, is one of 48 glaciers fed by the Southern Patagonian Ice Field located in the Andes system shared with Chile. This icefield is the world's third largest reserve of fresh water.
Franz Josef Glacier, NZ
Greenpeace Switzerland raised awareness of the impact of climate change in 2007 with an award winning photo shoot on Altetsch Glacier. US installalation artist Spencer Tunick was recruited to photograph nearly 600 people removing their clothes and standing as naked testimony on the slopes of the glacier.
This grand panorama of the Southern Patagonia Ice Field was photographed by a crew member aboard the International Space Station (ISS) on a rare clear day in the southern Andes Mountains. With an area of 13,000 square kilometers (5,000 square miles), the ice field is the largest temperate ice sheet in the Southern Hemisphere. Storms that swirl into the region from the southern Pacific Ocean bring rain and snow (between 2 to 11 meters of rainfall per year), resulting in the buildup of the ice sheet.
During the ice ages, these glaciers were far larger. Geologists now know that ice tongues extended far onto the plains in the foreground, completely filling the great Patagonian lakes on repeated occasions. Similarly, ice tongues extended into the dense network of fjords on the Pacific side of the ice field. Ice tongues today appear tiny compared what an “ice age” astronaut would have seen.
A study of the surface topography of sixty-three glaciers—based on data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission—compared data from 2000 to data from studies going back to 1968. Many glacier tongues showed significant annual “retreat” of their ice fronts, a familiar signal of climate change. The study also revealed that the almost invisible (to the naked eye) losses of ice volume by glacier thinning are far more significant—4 to 10 times greater—than those caused by collapse of the ice front (calving when ice masses fall into lakes).
Scaled over the entire ice field, nearly 13.5 cubic kilometers of ice were lost each year over the study period. This number becomes more meaningful when compared with the rate in the last five years of the study (1995-2000): an average of 38.7 cubic kilometers per year. Extrapolating results from the low-altitude glacier tongues implies that high plateau ice on the spine of the Andes Mountains is thinning as well. In the decade since this study, the often-imaged Upsala Glacier has retreated 3 kilometers, as shown recently in images taken by astronauts aboard the ISS. Glacier Pio X, named for Pope Pius X, is the only large glacier in the area that is growing in length.
- Rignot, E., Rivera, A., Casassa, G. (2003) Contribution of the Patagonia Icefields of South America to Sea Level Rise (PDF).Science 302, 434-437.
Astronaut photograph ISS038-E-47324 was acquired on February 13, 2014, with a Nikon D3S digital camera using a 65 millimeter lens, and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations Facility and the Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, Johnson Space Center. The image was taken by the Expedition 38 crew. It has been cropped and enhanced to improve contrast, and lens artifacts have been removed. The International Space Station Program supports the laboratory as part of the ISS National Lab to help astronauts take pictures of Earth that will be of the greatest value to scientists and the public, and to make those images freely available on the Internet. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA/JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth. Caption by M. Justin Wilkinson, Jacobs at NASA-JSC.Instrument: ISS - Digital Camera