An Interactive Map of Internet Censorship Around the World
In 2013, Freedom House released a ‘Freedom on the Net’ report, detailing internet censorship and restrictions around the world. In the report, each country was awarded a ‘Freedom on the Net’ score out of 100. This was based on three different metrics – limits placed on online content, obstacles to internet access, and violations of user rights. Based on this score, countries were then graded as Free, Partly Free, or Not Free. Some countries – those in grey – were not included in the report.
353 months of evidence that the world is too hot. Next month, we’ll be stepping up for action in a way that we’ve never done before @ People’s Climate March
Will the University of Sydney give these guys the flick?
Whitehaven Coal’s operations might seem far away to the University of Sydney management – but for the community at Maules Creek, the destruction of endangered forest, Indigenous heritage sites and prime farmland couldn’t be closer to home.
Tell university management it’s well and truly time to pull Sydney Uni money out of Whitehaven Coal » http://ift.tt/1tl6fOa
Behold the International Space Station on September 17, 2006, observed from the Space Shuttle Atlantis. (NASA)
Photos from a tour this summer of the U.S. National Ice Core Lab in Colorado.
An ice core is a core sample that is typically removed from an ice sheet, most commonly from the polar ice caps of Antarctica, Greenland or from high mountain glaciers elsewhere. As the ice forms from the incremental buildup of annual layers of snow, lower layers are older than upper, and an ice core contains ice formed over a range of years. The properties of the ice and the recrystallized inclusions within the ice can then be used to reconstruct a climatic record over the age range of the core, normally through isotopic analysis. This enables the reconstruction of local temperature records and the history of atmospheric composition.
Ice cores contain an abundance of information about climate. Inclusions in the snow of each year remain in the ice, such as wind-blown dust, ash, pollen, bubbles of atmospheric gas and radioactive substances. The variety of climatic proxies is greater than in any other natural recorder of climate, such as tree rings or sediment layers. These include (proxies for) temperature, ocean volume, precipitation, chemistry and gas composition of the lower atmosphere, volcanic eruptions, solar variability, sea-surface productivity, desert extent and forest fires.
The length of the record depends on the depth of the ice core and varies from a few years up to 800 kyr (800,000 years) for the EPICA core. The time resolution (i.e. the shortest time period which can be accurately distinguished) depends on the amount of annual snowfall, and reduces with depth as the ice compacts under the weight of layers accumulating on top of it. Upper layers of ice in a core correspond to a single year or sometimes a single season. Deeper into the ice the layers thin and annual layers become indistinguishable.
An ice core from the right site can be used to reconstruct an uninterrupted and detailed climate record extending over hundreds of thousands of years, providing information on a wide variety of aspects of climate at each point in time. It is the simultaneity of these properties recorded in the ice that makes ice cores such a powerful tool in paleoclimate research.
politics should be about finding answers to problems. Here politics seems to be the biggest problem to finding solutions for real problems.
The truth of this is overwhelming. So many problems could be resolved if they would take the politics out of science. Or if they even had people in charge who actually understand the science. All this is making me depressed.
At about 10:45 p.m. Mountain Daylight Time (MDT) on September 14, 2014, Hurricane Odile made landfall as aCategory 3 storm near Cabo San Lucas, Mexico. According to the U.S. National Hurricane Center, Odile arrived with wind speeds of 110 knots (204 kilometers or 127 miles per hour). The storm tied Olivia (1967) as the strongest hurricane to make landfall in the state of Baja California Sur in the satellite era.
The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Terra satellite acquired this natural-color view of the storm at about noon MDT on September 14, when it was still southeast of the Baja California peninsula. Unisys Weather reported that the Category 4 storm had maximum sustained wind speeds of 115 knots (213 kilometers per hour) at the time.
Odile had weakened to a Category 2 hurricane by 6 a.m. MDT on September 15. The storm was expected to continue weakening as it moved up the peninsula and over the area’s rough terrain, according to weather blogger Jeff Masters. Meteorologists noted that while damaging winds posed the biggest threat in the short term, inland areas of the U.S. Southwest could face heavy rainfall by September 16.
The rain expected from Odile came one week after the U.S. Southwest experienced flash floods from the remnants of Hurricane Norbert. According to weather and climate blogger Eric Holthaus, those floods did little to relieve the area’s ongoing drought.
References and Related Reading
- Eric Holthaus, Future Tense, via Slate (2014, September 8) A Hurricane Is Flooding the Southwest, but It Won’t Cure the Drought. Accessed September 15, 2014.
- Jeff Masters WunderBlog, via Weather Underground (2014, September 15) Category 3 Odile the Strongest Hurricane on Record to Hit Baja. Accessed September 15, 2014.
- National Hurricane Center (2014, September 15) Hurricane Odile Discussion 21. Accessed September 15, 2014.
- Unisys Weather (2014, September 15) Hurricane-4 Odile. Accessed September 15, 2014.
NASA image by Jeff Schmaltz, LANCE/EOSDIS Rapid Response. Caption by Kathryn Hansen.Instrument(s): Terra - MODIS
In support of International Polar Year, this matching pair of images showing a global view of the Arctic and Antarctic were generated in poster-size resolution. Both images show the sea ice on September 21, 2005, the date at which the sea ice was at its minimum extent in the northern hemisphere. The color of the sea ice is derived from the AMSR-E 89 GHz brightness temperature while the extent of the sea ice was determined by the AMSR-E sea ice concentration. Over the continents, the terrain shows the average land cover for September, 2004. (See Blue Marble Next Generation) The global cloud cover shown was obtained from the original Blue Marble cloud data distributed in 2002. (See Blue Marble:Clouds) A matching star background is provided for each view. All images include transparency, allowing them to be composited on a background.
Visualizer/Animator:Cindy Starr (GST) (Lead)
Ronald Weaver (University of Colorado)NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center Scientific Visualization Studio The Blue Marble data is courtesy of Reto Stockli (NASA/GSFC).
Tracking when hydraulic fracturing fails
The last few yeas have been, to a large extent, the “Wild West” for the deployment of horizontally-drilled wells for hydraulic fracturing. Lots of exploring, not a lot of control on it.
The techniques of pumping fluids and sand into the ground to open up cracks that allow natural gas flow were first deployed over 10 years ago in Texas, using mostly vertically-drilled wells. But over the past ~5 years, the Marcellus Shale, which sits at depths of over a kilometer beneath western and central Pennsylvania, has become a major target for wells that turn horizontal and cover large areas underground from a single drilling location.
As we described in our last post (https://www.facebook.com/TheEarthStory/posts/751065708287809), there are probably ways to do this process well, and if it is done properly it does have the potential to produce significant environmental gains. However, much of the drilling efforts in this area have been done with limited regulation and limited review, setting up the opposite scenario.